IB english paper1 英语论文1写作技巧
2017-06-09     09:48 来源: 来自互联网
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摘要:IB english paper1占科目总分的25%,比重算是不大不小。但因为Paper 1一般情况下比Paper 2的literature part拿分容易很多,是提分的paper,所以还是很重要的!下面私立教育为大家说说IB english paper1的写作技巧。

IB english paper1 英语论文1写作技巧

Text type + Targeted Audience + Purpose
这三点,是你在整个写essay过程中一直要铭记于心的,因为它确定了你essay的方向。首先你要确定你的text type,这些text types,都有自己鲜明的语言特点。简单的来说,你要做的,就是结合这个text的具体内容,写一篇文章解释它是如何利用这些language features,针对targeted audience需求/心理,来达到它的purpose。所以,你首先是要identify the text type, 然后find out thepurpose and its intended audience. 这些都明确了,essay就会很好下手。
Text type一般很容易识别,就不赘述了。举个例子,一个advert, 一般的purpose大概就那两个:inform和persuade: Informthe audience the details of the product and persuade the audience to purchasethe product. 而persuasion的手段就多种多样了,这些手段就取决于the nature of the product and the potential buyers. 比如一些designer bag,针对生活水平较高的女性,就会利用女性爱美和虚荣的心理,用glamorousmodels或者娱乐圈名人,这样的目的就是relate the product to a certain “lifestyle”,让你觉得如果你用了这个手袋,你就能和那个model一样gorgeous,变成上流社会的一员blah blah. 而一个劝止吸烟或者谨慎开车的公益广告,它的targetaudience经常是general public,尤其是吸烟人群和司机。这种广告就很可能会利用fear来deter target audience,比如画很恐怖的肺和公布一年车祸死亡人数这样,还有利用巧妙的语言之类。
所以重点是:text type, audience和purpose是需要明确的三大要素,明确了这些,再根据这三个去组织分析content,linguistic features, structures,tone, mood之类的。
下面就根据marking criteria来讲一下吧:大家可以看到,assessment criteria一共4个,每个5分,共20分。
1. Understanding of the Text
这一点,打分标准不是很明确,examiner会根据你的essay给一个综合评估。说是看你对text的理解程度,其实就跟刚讲的text type+audience+purpose有很大关系。如果你很明确这三点,你就应该已经理解了这个text。但你要show the examiner that you understand,就要靠剩下的那三点都综合起来,尤其B和C。就是说:你明白这个是什么text type,明白这个text type有什么common features;你知道这个specific article/visual针对谁,有什么目的;它是如何让利用这种text type的stylistic features来达到它的目的。如果这些你都可以说清楚并且比较完整,那这个understanding应该就没问题了。

2. Understandingof the Use of Stylistic Features
接上一点,这个就是你文章的重头戏。解释这个text里如何用语言特色来实现它的目的。
Stylistic Features不光包括最常见的repetition,metaphor, simile, hyperbole, rhetorical questions, parallel, contrast etc. 还有很多像,double entendre,anaphora,use of modifiers, irony, sarcasm, juxtaposition,analogy, denotation and connotation, appealing to ethos, pathos, logos,use of action verb and imperative sentence to call for actions等等等等。
另外就是mood和tone。比如speech很可能是sincere, confident. Advert可能是persuasive,caring(pretendthat they are selling this to u for your own good LOL),而newspaper,就可能是factual,objective等等。
除了纯语言上的,最重要的就visuals. 比如:large image to attract attention, high modality to add authenticity,image里面的东西可以分析的就更多了, 这个就视情况分析。
另外,还有一些features用来add credibility,比如quote from authentic personnel,use of statistics and charts.
Punctuation marks,比如: quotation marks to show irony/other implications, ellipsisto evokethoughts, exclamationmarks to show emotion/urge the audience to do sth等等…
还有就是use of personal pronoun. 比如: use of first person pronoun(I, me) add credibility and sincerity;use of second person pronoun(比如他直接说 We have customizedslimming plan for you, what are you waiting for),像是直接和targetaudience对话,可以拉近距离,俗称套近乎,以达到让你感到它的热情和真诚,够买它的产品或被persuade成功(常出现在advert and speeches)…最后,use ofthird person pronoun则是显得可信度高,add credibility,因为没有vested interest(常出现在newspaper articles)
另外,typographical features也可以算在stylistic features里面,比如:bullet pointsto addclarity,bold/underlined/italic text to grasp attention, short sentences toease fast reading.
Structure上,比如:chronological order to show development process, inverted triangle(newspaper articles) structure to summarize the most important points at thebeginning.
还有另外一些比如advert后面有网站link,订购电话等,也可以comment,因为这些可以facilitate the purchase从而达到广告的目的,因此也是要analyze范围内的内容。
大概就能想到这么多了,其实如果你把这些都记住, 考试的text里绝对能找出一些,并且够你写的..当然,记不了这么多也没事
3. Organization and Development
建议是,第一段intro,四五行写出text type, targeted audience (有context也可以略提)和purpose。然后再用一两句大概providean overview of your essay.
比如:This article is a travel package advertisement taken from XXX. It targets at the general public, especially couples and newlyweds as the packages mainly include famous romantic destinations and it is publicizedin the week leading to the Valentines‘ day. The advertisement aims to fantasize the potential buyers withthe various attractions, convince them the high “cost-performance” of thepackages, and ultimately, persuade them to purchase the travel packages. Toachieve its goal, the advertiser employed various means such as visuals,creating a joyful mood as well as many stylistic features. I shall analyzethese in my following essay.
(这个intro结构基本可以套用所有的text上,而且很保险,因为开门见山地点出了重点,也可以节省很多时间去构思intro)
下来的body paras,就根据text不同而定了。但一定要条理清晰,一段一个点。每段开头要有thesisstatement,然后elaborate,最后link回你的purpose上去,这样这个点才是well-developed。这些body para的内容,可以稍微偏向那连个guiding question,但一定不能仅局限于那两个问题。因为它只是一个引导。要是只回答它们,那content肯定不全面。一般我就是扫一眼,然后基本ignore那俩问题…
4. Language
Language这东西不是可以突然提高的,就提醒一下,正确的短句子比错了的长句子给人的impression好得多。可以用一些展现你英语水平的vocab,但要是记不清就别用。Simplicity也是很好的,起码比错了好…
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